Sunday, March 15, 2020

racial violence Essay

racial violence Essay racial violence Essay Anna Crowley Mr. Lowery -5 February 8, 2011 Racial Violence Racial violence in Rwanda happened because of Genocide; the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, political or cultural group. The Hutu thought they were better than the Tutsi. The Tutsi were darker skin and had bigger noses. You could not tell the difference between them without looking at their identification card. They only judged them on one factor in there life. The Hutu had lighter skin and smaller noses. Hutus believed they were better than everyone else and thought that if someone was not like them they should be killed. It was a mass killing by the Hutus. The Hutus were about 90% of the population. During this time, the Tutsi were forced to hide in order to keep themselves alive or pay the Hutus. If you were a Hutu and helped out a Tutsi you were most likely to also be killed. They had reporters come out and film the violence happening but, yet people still did not help. â€Å"Yeah, and if no one intervenes, is it still a good thing to show?â₠¬  one of the reporters said. People were not really worried about what was happening in Rwanda. The Hutu did not really think they were doing anything that bad. They just thought they were making a better place for everyone. The Hutu believed no one like the Tutsis. The Hutus wanted revenge on the Tutsi because they believed the Tutsi killed the Hutu President. The United Nations, tried to protect the Tutsi but, they could not shoot or anything without the Hutus shooting at them. There was not much they could do to help them out to much. â€Å"We're here as peace keepers, not peace makers† one of the United Nation soldiers said. Neither could do much and they knew that they were both in danger. During the movie Hotel Rwanda, Paul Rusesabagina (Hutu) was married to a Tutsi and his main goal was to protect her and their children. In the middle of all of the fighting, Rusesabagina was in charge of a hotel. He needed to care for the safety of the guests also. He tried to keep everything under control and safe for the guests. He told the Hutu army that everyone in his hotel was a Hutu so they would help them. The Hutus would kill the men and save some of the women to be sex slaves. If the women would refuse they would be killed by the militia groups. The Hutus would burn their houses after they would kill them. No one knew what was going to happen next, you could be perfectly fine one day and have your house searched by the militia. People were always on guard with each other but still seemed to be civil at the hotel. Everything does not always come easy and people do not always help when you are in pain. The Tutsi stuck it out and were able to go somewhere safe. They did not solve their problems in the end but some people were saved. The movie Invictus was a lot different than Hotel Rwanda. Newly elected President Nelson Mandela decided to support his South Africa rugby team, thinking he could bring his country together by the universal language of sport. He recently made the commitment to help them out. He used to cheer for every other team, except for his own. Nelson Mandela just got out of jail after twenty six years as a political prisoner. His speech he gave after he had become President was to unite South Africa. The divide has mostly separated the Afrikaners (white South Africans that came from Europe during the 17th century) and the black natives. The Afrikaners believe it would be a bad thing and the country will be going down the drain. Nelson’s main goal is to have his country set aside their differences and become one and strong. There is only one black native on the rugby team and all the kids are rooting for him. Nelson sends the team to go out into the poorer areas of South Africa and teach rugby to the natives. At first, Chester the team's only black player is swarmed by all the kids but, soon the entire team is out

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Human Resource Management Strategy at Omantel Essay

Human Resource Management Strategy at Omantel - Essay Example Omantel is a prominent telecommunications company in Oman, charged with the role of uniting individuals, families and businesses. It has contributed in uniting the Omani community as well as enhancing global connection. According to the Omantel Annual report 2011 (23), as well as 70% of the respondents, the managerial roles of the Omantel Group are entrusted to the board of directors. This board is composed of eight members, six of whom represents the government function; inclusive of the Board Chairman. The remaining two members are elected by the private sector shareholders during the annual general meeting. This board approves the financial and business policy of the organisation to ensure that the objectives of the company are achieved and the shareholder value is maximised. The board is also charged with the responsibility of presiding over the internal activities of the company and specifying the responsibilities of the executive organisational arm. Other roles include evaluation of the company performance, nominating members of any subcommittees and specifying their roles, appointing the Chief Executive Officer and reviewing the interim annual financial statements. The board of directors prov ides the members of the various committees that completes the management function of the company; executive committee, human resource committee, audit committee and regulatory committee.... Omantel is a prominent telecommunications company in Oman, charged with the role of uniting individuals, families and businesses. It has contributed in uniting the Omani community as well as enhancing global connection. According to the Omantel Annual report 2011 (23), as well as 70% of the respondents, the managerial roles of the Omantel Group are entrusted to the board of directors. This board is composed of eight members, six of whom represents the government function; inclusive of the Board Chairman. The remaining two members are elected by the private sector shareholders during the annual general meeting. This board approves the financial and business policy of the organisation to ensure that the objectives of the company are achieved and the shareholder value is maximised. The board is also charged with the responsibility of presiding over the internal activities of the company and specifying the responsibilities of the executive organisational arm. Other roles include evaluation of the company performance, nominating members of any subcommittees and specifying their roles, appointing the Chief Executive Officer and reviewing the interim annual financial statements. The board of directors prov ides the members of the various committees that completes the management function of the company; executive committee, human resource committee, audit committee and regulatory committee.

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Education and Parental Involvement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Education and Parental Involvement - Essay Example The crucial stakeholders in the process include teachers and parents among others though the mentioned are the most crucial in educating the children. This is because this two are the most involved in the education process. It might be perceived that it is the teachers are solely the ones having a significant impact in a child’s education. This is misconstrued, since parents are the first teachers for a child. They also spend a considerable amount of time with them naturally making them Principle figures in the education process. Various factors influence the input of guardians and instructors in the education process. In the articles, one if the most prominent factor is social class. This is because this factor influences the situations in which the child faces in their quest to be educated. According to Rodriguez, cultural background is also significant since education is influenced significantly overtly or indirectly with culture. Economic classes are also prominent in this process. All this factors come into play when an immigrant child attempts to learn in a foreign environment. This is because the learning process is not only alien to the learner, but also to the guardians. Rose, who shows the significance of alienation of these parties to the process, reiterates this fact. This is because there are numerous limitations in the understanding and participation of the parents in ensuring the success of a child in school. Although learning is a crucial requirement in the modern society, there are various limitations that immigrant parents face, in their involvement, in the edification process of their children. Based on the articles, when a family immigrates, they are exposed to a new environment. This will mean that the family will have to adapt to the new scenario. This will mean that both parents and child will have to readjust themselves to the new education system. This is because the new system will be centered on the cultural inclinations of the new environment (Rodriguez, p3). This will lead to alienation of the student and the parent from the education process. This will result in the parent not being in a position of extending assistance to the Child’s schoolwork. This is because the situation will expose the child and parent to cultural extremes. This will lead to conflicting influences in their education since the transition process will be challenging for them. This will be an impediment for the parent to participate in the education process of their children. In addition, due to the differences, the child will cut themselves mentally from the parents. This is because the parents due to the environment will lose their relevance in the learning process. The child will create a perception that the parents are incapable of being of any assistance in this scenario. This will result in the child becoming autonomous in their learning, in that they will do their homework and other learning activities without parental involvement, hence shutting out parents. The child will be embarrassed of their parents’ illiteracy hence they will attempt for any form of guidance education wise. The child may constantly want to reiterate to parents on their lack of education (Rodriguez, p4). According to Rose, Immigrant parents will also not comprehend the procedures and terms used in the education

Friday, January 31, 2020

The miserable origin and author Essay Example for Free

The miserable origin and author Essay This shows he is discriminating against him, as he just presumes him to be evil and wanting to harm him. However, his facial expression tells us that he reached out in search of companionship. Frankenstein then runs away from the monster and hides. Frankenstein reacts in this way, as he is prejudiced against him. His opinion of him is generated purely based on the way the monster looks. We see this when he says: the beauty of my dream vanished and breathless horror and disgust filled my heart. Frankenstein only sees beauty as the way you look, and bases his opinions on this. He then compares himself to Dante, who wrote The Inferno. From this, we can see that he sees the monster as being horrible, and he wishes he could die and go to hell. (as described in Dantes novel) Despite the way in which Victor abandons the creature, we see him as being very hypocritical at this point, upon the arrival of his friend Henry Clerval. He says nothing could equal my delight at seeing Clerval; He feels same when he is in the presence of his friend, and so his rejection of the monster when he held out a hand for security, makes him a hypocrite. This is confirmed when Frankenstein grasps his hand. Whereas, he turned away from the monster rather than holding his hand like he does with Clerval. The remainder of the chapter tells us about Victors illness and recovery, which is due to his mental state after the monsters creation. In this chapter, many key themes of the book are highlighted. We see examples of friendship and rejection; we see the ideas of parent/child relationships and the way victor rejects his responsibilities, purely based on his looks, and therefore, we are also presented with ideas about prejudice. We also have views about whether the creation of the monster was morally acceptable or not. In chapter four, we see how Frankenstein rejects the responsibilities that he has over the creature which he has brought to life. We can see that he has no intention of looking after the creature when he says I sincerely hope, that all these employments are now at an end, and Im at length free. This tells us tat he was feeling restricted, almost imprisoned because of his creation, but he is now free, therefore he has no intentions of caring for his creation like a father should. The use of the word employments tells us he thinks of him as being a chore (like a job is) and so instead of loving him, he dreads and hates him in the same way you do a job. We can also see how victor has rejected him in the words he uses to describe him. He does not give him a name, which is a duty performed by all parents, instead he refers to him as the dreaded spectre and hideous guest. The use of the word spectre, refers to the way Frankenstein obviously wishes the creature would die, so he does not have any responsibilities. The idea of naming a human is to give it identity, so it can be recognised, however, Frankensteins refusal to do show, tells us he does not care about him and thinks that by ignoring him, and not giving him an identity, he will go away. In this respect, he is neglecting his parental responsibilities. We then see him running away from it when it tries to reach out to him for security and as a symbol of love. He currently has no warm feelings towards the monster, who we can only presume has run away, when he was rejected by his father. Throughout the rest of the novel, we see Frankenstein continually denying his presence, and only thinks of him at times when horrible events have taken place. He presumes him to be the murderer of his brother William, purely based on his deceptions which he gained from his appearances. In order to confirm this, he seeks him out to ask his story. They then meet in the cold mountains in chapter 2 of the second volume. This is two years after his creation, in which the monster has learnt to talk and has also learnt many other skills any other human would have had. This is the only time Frankenstein shows any sentimentality towards his creation, and so he decides to listen to his story in order to discover what he has been doing. He says I felt what the duties of a creator towards his creation were i ought to render him happy. Frankenstein has now acknowledged his status as a father and decides to let the monster tell his story to make him happy. He also seeks to find out who really did kill his brother, and if his suspicions can be proved. However, earlier in the chapter, he describes himself as the miserable origin and author The word miserable tells us he deems himself to be a monster, and the use of the same word also to describe the monster in chapter four also shows how he can draw a parallel between them both. The reasons for Frankensteins hatred of the monster, comes from his opinion that you have to be beautiful to be a decent person. He tried to make the monster like this, but when he realises the monster was ugly, he immediately presumes him to be evil and as something to fear. This discriminatory view is the reason why Frankenstein rejects the monster. He describes the work to create him as the beauty of the dream. As the reality of the dream is not so beautiful, Victor might see the monster as someone who has ruined his dreams and therefore, he hates him for that. However, his prejudicial views are what appear to make him hate the monster, although this might be a contributing factor. Prejudice is another key idea Shelley presents to us in the novel. We can see Frankenstein discriminating against the monster when the creature first comes to life.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Thomas Jefferson Essays -- essays research papers

Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States. His terms lasted from the year 1801 to the year 1809. Jefferson was an American revolutionary leader as well as an influential political philosopher. Jefferson was among a group of the most brilliant Americans that resulted from the Enlightenment in Europe. Possibly one of the best writers during his time, Jefferson was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson ¡Ã‚ ¦s status as a Virginia aristocrat gave him the two most important things to become an educated man, which was a difficult thing to become during that time. Those two things, time and the resources, allowed him to educate himself in history, literature, law, architecture, science, and philosophy. He also had a great deal of influence on his ideals that came directly from the European culture and thought because he had been a diplomat and friend of French and British intellectuals. Jefferson was born on the thirteenth day of April of the year 1743 at Shadwell in Goochland (now in Albemarle) Co., Virginia, which was at the time considered a western outpost and was to remain as Jefferson ¡Ã‚ ¦s lifelong home. He was the son of Peter Jefferson and Jane Randolph Jefferson. His father, Peter, was a surveyor, a cartographer, and a plantation owner and he was also largely self-educated. His mother, Jane was from the prominent Rudolph family of colonial Virginia. Jefferson ¡Ã‚ ¦s intense interest in botany, geology, cartography, North American exploration, and love of Greek and Latin are due largely from his father and his surrounding environment out in the west where he also absorbed the democratic views of his Western countrymen. For several years, Jefferson studied at the local grammar and classical schools. After that, he entered the College of William and Mary in the year 1760. During his time at the college, he had become a close friend to three prominent residents of Williamsburg: William Small, George Wythe, and Francis Fauquier who was the lieutenant governor of the colony. Small was of the college faculty who Jefferson had studied under. Small had an in depth knowledge of the Scottish Englightenment and its approach to law, history, philosophy, and science. He had also introduced him to the natural sciences and to rational methods of inquiry. Wythe was of the Virginia bar. ... ...ge. Interest payments from the final settlement finally made the total price $27,267,622. Despite the scruples that Jefferson had about the purchase being constitutional or not, his other fears that Napoleon would change his mind because of Livingston ¡Ã‚ ¦s reports and from the overwhelming public approval of the Louisiana Purchase, except for most of New England, eventually overcame him and he approved. After the United States Senate ratified the treaty in October of that same year, the flag of the United States was raised over New Orleans on the twentieth of December. Even though the United States had purchased a great deal of land, it was still unclear. The wording of the treaty was vague and the boundaries were not clearly described. Also, the fact that the United States was to also own West Florida, which was suppose to be considered part of Louisiana was not assured. Despite that the final boundaries of the territory were not settled for many years, the boundaries roughly extended form the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to British North America. The total purchase had doubled the national domain, increasing it 2,144,500 square kilometers.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Just War Theory Essay

The Just War theory consists of 6 rules, which have to be obeyed when fighting at war against another country. The six rules are that war must be a last resort, those who are attacked deserve it, promote good over evil, the right amount of force must be applied, civilian death have to be avoided and the war must be started and controlled by the government. Wars such as the one in Afghanistan, do not in many ways follow this theory. The war does not in any ways promote good over evil and civilian death are never avoided, as many innocent civilians are killed when getting caught in the middle of cross-fires etc. I will conduct a case study on the Iraq war, further on in this essay. If I was able to add one extra agreement to the Just War theory, I would add that violence should always be kept to a minimum. I think this because violence causes the world’s most deaths in society today. This, in my opinion, is completely wrong and unacceptable as people should be able to live in a safe and free society, but this is never possible as you always have to be watching around you, as with some cases, you don’t know actually who to trust. To conduct a case study on the Iraq war, you would need to study the background history leading up to the start of the war in 2002-2003. Tony Blair (ex-prime minister) believed that Iraq were making nuclear weapons to lock themselves in a nuclear arms race, which could have potentially caused devastating consequences for the region and the wider world in general. This accusation caused the British and US forces to move in and declare a war with Iraq. British government believed that Iraq should not be allowed to develop nuclear weapons, and this is why Blair confronted Saddam Hussain (Iraq leader) to try to find out facts, and this ended in Blair declaring war with Iraq. Several years on now, in 2010, we now have a clear understanding that there was never any nuclear weapons out in Iraq, and in my opinion, we are fighting a war which was never ours and we are losing people in our country and society which lives should have never been lost in the first place. Shouldn’t we be only at war to help benefit our country? This is why some people send accusations and believe that Tony Blair is the one to blame for our British soldiers losing their lives out in Iraq. When you come down to think about it, the Just War theory comes into effect at only one point in the Iraq war. ‘War is started and controlled by the government’ comes into effect as the British government started the war and are still controlling it, 8 years after war was declared. The point that was never followed was ‘those who are attacked deserve it’. I believe this because in my opinion, we are in Iraq and we are attacking for no reason, as there is nothing which could benefit our country in any way. The Iraq war also does not promote good over evil, as in my opinion, how can going to war, ever promote good? Wouldn’t going to war be a bad thing and God would be against it? But on the other hand, the good of society would never go to war in the first place; you would only see evil at war. War should be avoided, using whatever ways possible. Â  

Monday, January 6, 2020

The IABPAD Conference Proceedings - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 18 Words: 5453 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/10/10 Did you like this example? ABSTRACT The management skills of supervisors and managers are detrimental when it comes to assessing how organizations are effectively run, especially during a time in history that is experiencing rapid change. The purpose of this study is to investigate which management skills contribute to effectiveness and efficiency of the workplace, and to which degree. It also aims to compare the correlation between manager efficiency and conceptual human and technical skills of those in the workplace. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The IABPAD Conference Proceedings" essay for you Create order The data was collected using a questionnaire which was obtained from municipal employees across Istanbul. A total of 194 questionnaires were handed out, however, 186 units were deemed valid. As a result of the analysis performed, human, conceptual and technical skills have proved to be proportionately effective to manager effectivenesswhen working in an environment. Such effectiveness and efficiency in the case of the manager is based on skills such as: communication, interpersonal skills, and the ability to motivate and encourage a team. The influence on the effectiveness that management may have on both the conceptual and technical skills of the workplace changes according to the level of the upper-management. This study has shown; under competition and particular uncertainty, it becomes increasingly difficult to achieve desired goals. The difficulty of this task is further heightened by a system of classical management based on protecting an organizations efficiency and maintaining the status quo. For managers to be part of operations and to be in effective communication with their employees, they must persuade and motivate their employees, and be able to provide organizational effectiveness. INTRODUCTION In todays global world, where changes drive forward every field, mankind has plunged into a quest to use available resources in the most effective and efficient way to create a difference. In addition to this, the only way to become successful and to compete with other organizations is to create that difference through the efficient use of resources (Koà §o?lu, 2010). This quick development and transformation requires and compels institutions to different pursuits in order to become successful. Assessments and change become necessary for a successful organization to result and in order to sustain competitiveness in a field of new pursuits and for possible improvement in any or all of the following areas: usage of resources, procurement of raw materials, technological development and efficiency in making use of opportunities. The focus of all efforts is on creating new opportunities and so the questionthen becomes how to manage and make use of such opportunities in the most rational way. Therefore, evaluation covers the contribution of organizational managers in the scope of an institutions success. People who deal with management and are responsible for the organizations management structure as well as functionality, are primarily the top managers of institutions. For organization to carry out its defined mission and remain competitive, the manage ment of organizations is examined in terms of operation and structure in order to perform manager analyses. This is why management concept has become the focus of debate in todays management organizations, and why skills and properties of managers have been put in the center of successful management discussions (Eren, 2001). The relationship between organizations efficiency and manager efficiency, manager efficiency and organizations effectiveness etc. subjects were emphasized in scope of literature works done until today, but no detailed work was carried out on the relationship between manager properties and manager efficiency. This work aims at carrying out a much more detailed study on manager efficiency and manager properties, and also public servants are taken as examples to add a different perspective. The aim is to make academic contributions to todays academic literature and managers, in addition to being a guide for future works. The purpose of this work is to put forward manager behaviors and properties to define the efficient manager and to study which manager properties and skills contribute to manager efficiency. In parallel with this purpose, the management and manager concepts are going to be discussed by examining the skills and properties of managers which must be owned by management organizations. MANAGER Manager is the person who is expected to be efficient and successful and who must carry out the arrangements that will ensure the institution reaches its purpose and targets. In other words the manager is the name of the person, who is expected to reach and achieve certain purposes by displaying administrative functions, regardless of the institutions structure or current position level. Erdo?an (2008) defines it as the person who is obliged to and responsible for managing efficiently and effectively, in order to make people who come together for a purpose be able to achieve that target harmoniously and cooperatively. According to an extensive definition the manager is the person who directs material and human production factors put under his command, to achieve determined purposes within a specific time, by considering the developments happening around, and who is responsible from the effectiveness of his owned resources (Koà §o?lu, 2010). Managers wrap themselves up in different manager styles based on their behaviors to their subordinates, their approaches to the job and the authorization transfer. Management can be seen as a pyramid with management organs that allow the establishment to achieve its set targets and get the job done by others. In this regard, management can be categorized into three stages. (Mucuk, 2008) Top Level Management Middle Level Management Low Level Management Top Level Management and Managers: These people are the ones with the highest authorization and power, who bear the responsibility for the whole establishment, who define establishments purpose, long-term policies and strategies, and who represent the establishment with the widest authority in the external environment (Mucuk, 2008). Middle Level Management and Managers: These people are the ones who work to realize the purposes determined by top management through focusing on application, and their human skills are in the foreground (Ataman, 2009). Low Level Management and Managers: These are the people who are responsible in the first degree from the workers who actually do the job in addition to technical, commercial or administrative personnel (Ataman, 2009). BASIC PROPERTIES AND SKILLS OF MANAGEMENT According to Tamer Koà §el (1989), management is a group of activities with three dimensions: technical, human and conceptual. Technical dimension is the managers functional specialty, human dimension is being able to influence people whom he works with, and conceptual dimension is a managers ability to see the organization as a whole. In parallel with technical, human and conceptual dimensions that constitute three individual aspects of management activities, management skills are examined in three categories such as Technical, Human Relations and Conceptual Skills (Mucuk, 2008). Manager skills classified in this way vary by management levels. It is known that management skills used based on management levels show differences. Conceptual skills are used much more by top level management while human skills are used more by middle level managers, while technical skills are more necessary for the administrator level. Human skills include skills of communication, coordination, motivation, directing and controlling. Technical skills include the skill to manage technical parts of the job, while the conceptual skills include planning, organization and decision-making. Technical Skills It is defined as the accumulation of knowledge about methods, processes, procedures, methods and key points to carry out specialized activities and skills to use tools and materials related to such activities (Yukl, 2004). Technical skill is the skill that include usage of various tools, methods and technologies to carry out organizational activities (Çetinkaya 2009). In this scope, special information, mastery, tactics and methods necessary to achieve a task, are all included under the topic of technical skills. Technical skills also require   information about products and services, organizational properties, properties of employees, management systems and rules along   with methods, processes and the equipment needed to complete the task at hand. Technical knowledge and skills are gained with formation, training and job experience while having a strong memory and being able to acquire new information one may need from various sources is also important (Yukl, 2004). Technical skills are more important for an organizations low level managers (Koà §o?lu, 2010). Human Skills (Relations) It is defined as the accumulation of knowledge about human behavior and interpersonal processes; the skill to understand the instincts (empathy, social sensitivity) that allows to understand feelings, behaviors and what other people are going to do and say; clear and active communication skills (fluent speech, persuasion skills); skill to establish active and cooperative relations (behaving according to environment, diplomacy, listening skills, accumulation of knowledge on acceptable social behaviors) (Yukl, 2004). Human skills are the skills that allow organizational purposes to be realized and that allow an individual expected job satisfaction (Çetinkaya, 2009). Relevant behaviors include information about group processes, being able to understand other peoples emotions, behaviors and instincts, and communicating with them in a clear and persuasive way. Empathy, social foresight, tactic, persuasiveness, diplomacy, oral communication skills, staying in a cooperative communication with the subordinates, superiors and counterparts are the properties owned by leaders having this skill. These kind of skills are important to influence people. Being able to listen to people without judging them is key to understand and evaluate them correctly (Yukl, 2004). In order to observe whether the human relations are used efficiently, we should examine the concepts of communication, coordination, directing, motivation, performance evaluation, control, problem-solving, emotional intelligence, social intelligence and emotional control. Conceptual Skills Conceptual skill is the skill to see the elements that constitute the organization as a whole (Çetinkaya, 2009). Conceptual or cognitive skills include subjects such as justice, creativeness, foresight, intuition and sense-making, in addition to basically including analytical skill, logical thinking, induction and deduction knowledge as well as conceptualization. Such skills are owned by top level managers. Active planning, organization, problem-solving, associating different departments of the organization with each other, strategic planning and analyzing the events etc. are examined under the title of conceptual skills. (Yukl, 2004). Conceptual skills gain more importance towards the upper levels as they include being able to see the organization as a whole, to coordinate and integrate the interests and activities of the organization and to see the relation between departments of the organization. Managers who carry out strategic planning have to use conceptual skills in their relations with the environment. (Koà §o?lu, 2010). Strong management skills are a basic necessity for an organization to survive in the world of competition where there is a need to track changes continuously. The leader-manager concept gained significance because of this necessity. Understanding people, systematic thinking, harmony between individual-organizational targets, increasing organizational loyalty of the employees and such leadership skills are important in increasing the financial sources of companies. However, the element that makes leadership more meaningful under the umbrella of organization is, forming a successful team spirit within the organization. Uniting employees with big targets they can achieve, developing strategies to reach those targets and motivating wage earners who are open to improvement with continuous training activities are indispensable points for a leader-manager in scope of forming the team spirit (Ãâ€"zdemir, 2009). MANAGER EFFICIENCY Manager structuring of organizations generally consist of 3 stages as low level managers, middle level managers and top level managers. Jobs and responsibilities of managers in these three categories are different. Their roles in the organization vary as the skills and abilities they need to become successful depend on their position. Each manager contributes and helps management function (planning, organization, directing and controlling) as required by their management level. Without naming their contributions as more important or less important among themselves, those who work in three management levels are the managers who define the efficiency of the other employees and therefore the organization. Regardless of their organization or level, the manager is the person who is expected to be efficient and effective on the employees in reaching the targets, by assuming the responsibility of one or more management functions. In order to become successful, the manager must be able to ma nage employee efforts and perceptions (Robbins and Coulter, 2005) (Erigà ¼Ãƒ § et al, 2009). Katz and Kahn efficiencies are defined as maximizing the organizational outputs in every possible way (economical, technological, political, etc). Gibson explains efficiency in three individual steps. The most basic level is the individual efficiency where the organizations members, all the employees, one by one are considered in scope of their performances. Jobs carried out by the individuals are parts of jobs and positions within the organization, therefore managers evaluate individuals performances periodically based on standards specific to that institution. As individuals generally work within a group, another efficiency type is compared to this one and this characterized as the group efficiency. Group efficiency can simply be expressed as the total of contributions of all group members in scope of the production. But it must be said that the group efficiency -because of the synergy created- means more than the total of contributions of the members. Third perspective in efficiency is the organizational efficiency. Organizations include individuals and groups, therefore group efficiency includes individual and group efficie ncies together. Besides, organizational efficiency expresses more than the total of individual efficiency and group efficiency. Like it happens in the group efficiency, organizations can reach to a performance level higher than the total of performances of their parts. The reason of existence for organizations is to achieve targets efficiently. Success of people and organizations is proportional to effective and efficient managers and management. The continuing efforts to increase efficiency and effectiveness are getting more frequent in our age. Almost all of organizational theories aim at defining and increasing efficiency (Ekinci and Y?lmaz, 2002). Manager Efficiency is about the organizations achieving its peak targets. First of the administrative duties of the manager is to obtain the highest possible performance from the jobs. Manager efficiency is not an ordinary property. Manager efficiency is observed when he can create solutions special to a problem he meets. An efficient manager focuses on what kind of contribution can be made to the functions of production, planning, coordination and controlling. Focusing on the contribution is the secret of becoming efficient. This influences the managers own work, work content, level, standards, influence, relations with superiors, colleagues and sellers and usage of management tools such as preparation of reports and meetings (Ekinci and Y?lmaz, 2002). MANAGER EFFECTIVENESS Effectiveness can be defined as the proportion of total physical income compared to the total output or production result obtained within a production or service system (Efil, 2004). Effectiveness concept is a criterion that expresses active functionality of the system in such a way that increases output amounts without increasing inputs. Therefore, effectiveness has a function that increases the level of welfare for an establishment by creating additional income. Moreover, the criteria such as input, output, added value, number of employees, working hours, wage payments and stock changes among others, shall be considered in calculation of effectiveness (Eren, 2001). Effective operation is an important target for organizations in both the production and service sector. Effectiveness, in the widest sense, is the proportion of total output to total input. Effectiveness concept is also called productivity. There are various ideas about the emergence of this concept. When we look at the first time the word productivity was used in the science world with a meaning close to the meaning it has today, we see that it was used in the 16th century by German Engineer Dr. George Bauer to explain how to improve mine extraction. The book De Re Metallica, which was published in 1556, is the source where the word productivity is closest to the meaning we use today. Effectiveness gained significance and soon became a subject on which people work towards during the following periods, especially after the emergence and spread of the Industrial Revolution. Effectiveness is a concept that has always been known and discussed as a measurement of success which is easy to define but hard to calculate (Ãâ€"zdemir and Muradova, 2008). When we think about the manager effectiveness, the work force has bigger potential to affect the effectiveness when compared to other factors. The factor that does the job, in other words, triggers the production factors and therefore   createsa product or service, is the workforce. Therefore effectiveness of the workforce can directly affect establishments effectiveness, and to a wide extent. Therefore the effectiveness of managers who manage, control and coordinate all of the work processes directly affect establishments effectiveness (Ãâ€"zdemir and Muradova, 2008). According to researches it is seen that the factors that increase the effectiveness of managers and wage earners are concepts such as the openness of channels of communication, fee, motivation, career etc. (Ãâ€"zdemir and Muradova, 2008). METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS It has been tried with this project to measure the relationship between management skills, manager efficiency and effectiveness. It has been examined how the managers activities are affected by technical, human (communication, coordination, motivation, controlling) and conceptual (planning, decision-making, creative thinking, problem solving) skills. A survey was carried out on three district municipality workers in Istanbul, which is used as the sample in the study. 194 workers took part in the survey, 186 of which were found acceptable. SPSS 11,5 software was used to analyze the data and information obtained as the result of the survey. Analyses used in the study consists of reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analyses to test study hypotheses. Findings of the study were tested at p0.01 and p0.05 significance levels. A five point Likert type scale was used to answer the surveys used in this study. Assessment options in the scale are: 1-I definitely disagree, 2-I disagree, 3-Average, 4-I agree, 5-I definitely agree. There are 32 closed ended questions about conceptual skills in the first part of the survey, 23 closed ended questions in the second part about human skills (Source S. Cameron Quinn, 1999), five closed ended questions about technical skills in the third part, (Z. Zorluer, 2013), eight closed ended questions about efficiency in the fourth part(Chen ,et. all.,2006, Ergun, Oruà §., 2009) and six closed ended questions about effectiveness in the fifth part. (Chen ,et. all., 2006) Correlations and Regression Analysis According to Table 1; Pearson correlation coefficients, average, standard deviation and correlation analysis results of variables in the model were given. Standard deviation values belonging to variables are calculated between 0,84 and 1,07; and show that the variance (variability) amount between these values is at sufficient level to carry out a valid analysis. According to Table 1; the highest relation between manager skills dimensions is meaningful at positive correlation p0,01 (0,885) level between human skills and top level conceptual skills, while the lowest relation is meaningful at positive correlation p0,01 (0,561) level between manager effectiveness and technical skills. Moreover, another relation among manager skills dimension is meaningful at positive correlation p0,01 (0,807) level between human skills and strategical conceptual skills. According to created data, it can be assessed that the human skills have high positive correlation with strategic and top conceptual skills, while it has a positive but lower relation with technical skills. The highest relation between independent variables and manager effectiveness which is one of the dependent variables in Table 1 is meaningful at positive correlation p0,01 (0,867) levels. It is also meaningful at positive correlation p0,01 (0,730) and (0,817) level between manager efficiency and strategic and top level conceptual skills. It is evaluated according to data that, the manager efficiency has a high positive relation between conceptual skills at secondary degree and with human skills at primary degree. It can be concluded that there is meaningful result at positive correlation p0,01 (0,752) level between manager efficiency and technical skills, in addition to a positive relation at conceptual skills level. The highest correlation between independent variables and manager effectiveness, which is one of the dependent variables in Table 1, is with the human skills. This relation is meaningful at p0,01 (0,630) levels. The correlation between independent variables is stronger with   the efficiency that is among the dependent variables, when compared to effectiveness that is among the dependent variables. Numerical closeness degree of corrected R2 and R2 values in Table 1 to 1 (one), expresses the direct proportion in reaching the reality result. R2 (which is 0.78) and corrected R2 values show at what degree the independent variables explain the dependent variable. According to the results it is seen that the managerial skills among the independent variables explain manager efficiency which is a dependent variable at 78% rate, while managerial skills, which are independent variables, explain dependent variable manager effectiveness at 43% rate. There is positive relation at p0,01 (11,538) level between the dependent variable manager efficiency and human skill which is the independent variable in Table 2. Also, there is positive relation at p0,01 (6,269) level between manager efficiency which is the dependent variable and technical skill which is the independent variable. There is a positive relation at p0,01 (2,889) level between top level conceptual skills and manager efficiency. Therefore when the human skills and technical skills are increased 1 (one) unit at p0,01 level; the manager efficiency increases based on human skills by 11,538, based on technical skills by 6,269 and based on top level conceptual skills by 2,889. In this scope the increase in manager efficiency; depends on the increase of human, technical and top level conceptual skill degrees which are independent variables. There is no positive relation at p0,01 and/or p0,05 level between dependent variable manager efficiency and strategical conceptual skills which are the independent variables in Table 2.   In the light of this information, it is thought that the increase in manager efficiency is not directly connected to the increase of strategical conceptual skill degrees among the independent variables. Table 2 shows multiple regression analysis of the relation between manager effectiveness and independent variables. All of the Strategical Conceptual, Top Level Conceptual, Human and Technical Skills have meaningful positive relation with the manager effectiveness. We see a relation that changes between 2,852 and 2,073 at p0,01 level. Results in Table 2 were taken into account for all management levels. The same regression analysis was carried out individually for low, middle and top level managers. Numerical closeness degree of corrected R2 and R2 values in Table 3 to 1 (one), expresses the direct proportion in reaching the reality result. R2 and corrected R2   (which are 0.76 and 0.75) values show at what degree the independent variables explain the dependent variable. According to the results it is seen that the managerial skills among the independent variables explain manager efficiency which is a dependent variable at 76% rate, while managerial skills which are independent variables explain dependent variable manager effectiveness at 46% rate. There is positive relation at p0,01 (6,465) between dependent variable top level manager efficiency and top level management human skills in Table 3. Also, there is positive relation at p0,01 (3,801) level between manager efficiency which is the dependent variable and technical skills which are the independent variables. This regression analysis as the result of the survey that was carried out in scope of local managements (municipalities) show that top managements human skills are efficient in a meaningful way in manager efficiency. Especially communication and motivation among the human skills which are at 0.750 level in scope of the factor, are indispensable properties of top level manager efficiency. This analysis, in which technical skills are influential, shows the necessity that top manager must have full knowledge of the subjects and be able to create a technical vision for his subordinates and the city. Independent variables that affect the manager effectiveness, which is a dependent variable, are strategical conceptual skills with p0,01 (2,955) and human skills with p0,01 (1,679) . Therefore, when strategical conceptual skills and human skills increase 1 (one) unit at p0,01 level, the level of manager effectiveness increases depending on the strategical conceptual skills by 2,955 and depending on human skills by   1,679. In this scope the increase in manager effectiveness depends on the increase of strategical conceptual skills and human skills which are independent variables. Once again, when the top level manager in scope of municipalities have strategical conceptual skills such as planning, activity controlling and strategical thinking, it creates an effective manager perception in the eye of his subordinates and those who receive the services. Numerical closeness degree of corrected R2 and R2 values in Table 4 to 1 (one), expresses the direct proportion in reaching the reality result. R2 and corrected R2   (which are 0,78 and 0,77) values show at what degree the independent variables explain the dependent variable. According to the results it is seen that the managerial skills among the independent variables explain manager efficiency which is a dependent variable at 78% rate, while managerial skills which are independent variables explain dependent variable manager effectiveness at 47% rate. There is positive relation at p0,01 (6,740) level between dependent variable top level manager efficiency and middle level management human skills in Table 4. This high relation level shows that, human skills play an important role in manager efficiency in municipalities for administrators at manager and deputy manager levels. High values of communication, motivation and decision-making in scope of factor analysis show that leader properties are important for middle level managers too, for them to be efficient. Also; there is positive relation at p0,01 (2,270) and (2,222) level between top conceptual and technical skills which are independent variables and manager efficiency which is a dependent variable. This result shows that, when the middle level managers who manage the coordination and who act as a bridge between top level managers and low level managers who personally carry out the application, as required by their positions, have both technical and top conceptual skills, this increases the manager efficiency. The independent variables that affect the manager effectiveness which is a dependent variable, are top conceptual skills with p0,05 (1,890) and human skills with p0,05 (1,859) . Although their meaningfulness level is at 0,05 level, an effective middle level manager shall have top conceptual skills in addition to human skills. Therefore, when top conceptual skills and human skills increase 1 (one) unit at p0,05 level, manager effectiveness level increases by 1,890 depending on top conceptual skills and by 1,859 depending on human skills. In this scope the increase in manager effectiveness depends on the increase of top conceptual skills and human skills which are independent variables. In scope of municipalities, a middle level managers effectiveness will increase or decrease based on at what degree top management successfully transmits the vision to subordinates and puts it into practice. The numerical closeness degree of R2 and corrected R2 values in Table 5 to 1 (one), expresses the direct proportion in reaching the reality result. R2 and corrected R2 values, which are 0.83 and 0.82, show at what rate the independent variables explain the dependent variable.   According to the results it is seen that the managerial skills among the independent variables explain manager efficiency which is a dependent variable at 83% rate, while managerial skills which are independent variables explain dependent variable manager effectiveness at 40% rate. There is positive relation at p0,01 (7,193) between dependent variable manager efficiency and human skills which are low level managerial skills, in Table 5. Also, there is positive relation at p0,01 (5,146) level between manager efficiency which is the dependent variable and technical skills which are the independent variable. This two relations reveal that, human skills are important also in low level management level like it is with the others, and they affect manager efficiency at a meaningful extent. Low level management personally manages the application and is the first answerer in the management level in scope of application of works, and therefore technical skills make important contributions to efficiency. This regression analysis as the result of the survey that was carried out in scope of local managements (municipalities) shows that low level managements human skills are efficient in a meaningful way in manager efficiency. Especially communication and motivation among the human skills which are at 0.750 level in scope of the factor, are indispensable properties of low level manager efficiency. Having technical skills is indispensable for the efficiency at this management level, which track the technical works by supervising the works on site. The independent variables that affect the management effectiveness which is a dependent variable are technical skills with p0,01 (2,955). Therefore when the technical skills are increased 1 (one) unit at p0,01 level, the manager effectiveness level increases by 2,955 depending on the technical skills. In this scope the manager effectiveness increase depends on the increase of technical skills degrees, which are independent variables. Carrying out the job effectively will ensure effectiveness of low level management, as the efficiency in scope of municipalities is related to the degree the work is carried out correctly, and how long it lasted. DISCUSSION Effects of conceptual, human and technical manager skills on three different management level manager effectiveness and efficiency are put forward in the study with an application carried out with three district municipality workers in Istanbul. During the factor analysis, it was found more meaningful to evaluate conceptual skills with two factors as strategical conceptual and top level conceptual skills, and to evaluate human and technical skills as one factor (Table-5.4.).   In scope of regression analyses carried out in this way, it is evident that only the strategical conceptual skills have negative relation with manager efficiency, and other skills had a positive relation which generally match up with theoretical information based on literature inquiry (Table-5.7.). When we consider the managers in general, it is seen that except for the negative relation of strategical conceptual skills on manager efficiency, it has positive effects on manager effectiveness while top level conceptual skills, human skills and technical skills have positive effects on both manager efficiency and manager effectiveness (Table-5.7.). Creative thinking, future management and problem-solving among the top level conceptual skills are coming to the forefront as the most important factors that increase manager efficiency (Table-5.4.). An efficient manager shall think creatively to put forward a vision and manage the future with such vision, and be able to use human properties and creative thinking skills well while solving problems. A manager who can do these in their proper place creates an efficient manager perception. This study has revealed that there is a meaningful relation at high degree between human skills and manager efficiency (Table-5.4.).Problem-solving, coordination, communication, motivation and decision-making are also among the human skills that are coming forward as the most important factors that increase manager efficiency (Table-5.4.). The relation between human skills and efficiency determined during the study is in parallel with the literature inquiries. When an efficient manager has good communication with his subordinates and superiors, this motivates his team, ensures coordination and uses other human skills actively. This positively affects a managers high efficiency. For all three level managers (municipalities: top level: Mayor/Deputy mayor, middle level: Manager/Deputy manager and low level: Chief) human skills are at a very important level for manager efficiency. Using a good communication channel to solve problems; ensuring participation by keeping communication strong when making decisions; to motivate when decisions are being applied and to ensure coordination are properties that increase the efficiency of managers from all levels. Especially in scope of service sector managers (municipalities are state organs that deliver service to the people) when the human skills are high, the efficiency of the work and the person who carried out the work increases. In each activity field that requires technical information it is seen that all three management levels the technical skills effect the efficiency in a meaningful way and at high rates (Table-5.7.). Contribution of the technical skill owned by the manager about the performed service to the efficiency is also proportional to usage of human skills when that service is being presented. An efficient manager presents his technical skill with his human skills. In parallel with the literature, the technical skills of chief/low level managers increase the manager efficiency more when compared to other skills (Table-5.10.). When evaluated in scope of municipalities, the reason of high level of contribution of technical skills in efficiency for top level managers is: because of the necessity of being able to give technical answer to peoples questions and having grasp of technical details when a planned work is explained by the mayor and deputy mayor and municipality personnel (Table-5.8.). A to p level manager that has grasp of technical details, is seen as an efficient manager who knows what he is doing and who has control over details in the eyes of stakeholders. An efficient manager may have one, two or all of conceptual, human or technical skills. This study revealed which skill of the manager puts him forward as an efficient manager and the abovementioned results were obtained. In scope of this study, when the skill of a manager comes to the foreground, this does not mean the manager does not have the other skills. This study assessed three levels (top, middle and low) of managers and examined the effects of individual manager properties of these three level managers on the manager efficiency. This study which has been carried out on local municipalities may give different results when carried out in different sectors.